Three primary colors theory of the hottest color v

2022-07-26
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The theory of color vision is developed based on the color recognition mechanism of human visual system. Its purpose is to explain or assist researchers to understand and master the phenomenon and relationship between naked eye vision and color. After years of research, color vision theory can be summarized into the following three theories:

1 Three component or trichromatic theory

2 Opposite colors theory

3 Zone theory of color vision

the "three primary color theory of visual color" is the earliest theory proposed, and has always been in a leading position in color science; Later, the "theory of opposite color" was put forward. This theory is another important theory besides the theory of three primary colors of visual color, and has also been valued by the color science community; Although these two color vision theories can explain most of the visual color phenomena, in recent years, the "stage visual color theory" has been put forward and accepted by everyone. This theory is a combination of the basic concepts of the "three primary color theory of visual color" and the "opposite color theory", which are integrated and complemented by each other. As for the details of these three color vision theories, they will be explained in the special articles on color technology. In this paper, we will first discuss the "three primary colors theory of visual color"

in 1802, Tomas young of England discovered that various colors could be produced by mixing red, green and blue, so he published and put forward the theory of three primary colors; In 1861, British Maxwell used the mixing method of three primary colors to make the first color photo that must be repaired in time; By the end of the 19th century? In 1892, German Helmholtz verified and expounded his theory. Therefore, the three primary color theory of visual color is also called "young Helmholtz color three primary color theory"

according to his theory, the three kinds of visual cells on the human visual membrane are named after three different nerve cells in the cerebral cortex. The stimulation of each cell will cause a primary color sensation? They are the feelings of red, green and blue. This argument was explained in detail in the last issue of the article. Readers should have some impression. When the light reflected (or transmitted) by the light irradiator enters the human visual system, it will cause the stimulation of three different cells at the same time. The wavelength characteristics of light make the intensity ratio of the combined stimulation of the three cells different, resulting in the feeling of different colors. This theory was put forward by Tomas young of Britain. When a certain color feeling occurs, one of the three cells will stimulate the most strongly, but the other two cells will also stimulate to some extent, that is to say, all three cells will be stimulated. Therefore, each color will have a white light component, that is, a sense of lightness. The sense of brightness is the sum of the brightness senses provided by the three cells. Later, German Helmholtz added Tomas Young's theory that different parts of the spectrum can cause stimulation of three different cells with different intensity ratios, and the color seen in the mixed color light is the stimulation result of three different cells. The proposal of this argument gives a more reasonable explanation for the monochromatic light other than red, green and blue that the eye can see. In a word, any color seen by the eye is the result of the combined stimulation of the three visual cells by light

The greatest advantage of young Helmholtz's three primary color theory is that it can fully explain the mixing phenomenon of various colors and solve the problem of color reproduction. For example, the color reproduction framework of color film and color TV is developed based on this theoretical basis; The hypothesis of three kinds of photoreceptors proposed by him has also been proved in the experimental results, which establishes the basic concept of spectral tristimulus value. This theory can be said to be the root of the development of modern "colorimetry". However, the disadvantage of this color vision theory is that it can not satisfactorily explain the phenomenon of color blindness. In terms of color blindness, Helmholtz believes that color blindness is caused by the lack of one (monochromatic) or two or even three (total color blindness) cone cells. Therefore, according to his theory, red blindness, green blindness and blue blindness can exist independently. However, in fact, all red blind people are green blind at the same time, that is to say, red blind people generally cannot distinguish between red and green, It is called red green blindness

at the same time, according to its theory, people with red green blindness should not have the feeling of yellow - because red green blindness lacks red and green cone cells, and the feeling of yellow color is induced by red and green cone cells, but in fact, people with red green blindness have the same feeling of yellow; In addition, according to its theory, only when the three photoreceptors act at the same time can they have a neutral color - white or gray feeling. Color blind people lack at least one of the cone cells, and should not have a neutral color? White or gray, but even people who are completely color blind have the same feeling of brightness or white. Therefore, as far as the "three primary colors theory of visual color" is concerned, there are contradictions and unexplainable phenomena. Therefore, there is another school of color vision theory - Hering's "opposite color theory". As for the "theory of opposite colors", it will be discussed and explained in the next special article

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