Three stages of the development and evolution of t

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Three stages of the development and evolution of manufacturing informatization

many concepts and hot spots have emerged in the development of informatization in China in recent years, from cloud computing to IOT, smart city to big data, to the current wave of artificial intelligence. These heat waves must come down to serve the manufacturing industry. For the development of artificial intelligence in China, the most important problem is to solve the development of China's manufacturing industry. If the manufacturing industry is not intellectualized, the backbone of China's national economy will not be solid enough

first of all, we need to understand, what is the intelligent description that the fan parts may be damaged and manufactured by the inertia force? According to the definition of encyclopedia, intelligence refers to the ability to acquire knowledge and skills. There is no unified definition of "artificial intelligence". This concept was put forward by Turing as early as 1952. Now, many people explain AI in longer and more complicated sentences. Finally, we can't figure out what AI is. In fact, artificial intelligence is simply the function that people give to machines. Specifically, through the computer hardware and software, especially various software, the machine is endowed with intelligence, so that the machine can feel the environment, be aware of the changes in the environment, further provide suggestions for decision makers, expand human intelligence, and even make decisions independently with prior authorization

if intelligence refers to the ability to acquire knowledge and skills, it is undeniable that it is these computer-aided systems and industrial software that bring intelligence to the manufacturing industry. Therefore, intelligent manufacturing, simply speaking, is computer manufacturing, without adding too many modifications and too complex definitions

what makes a computer more powerful than a human brain is not entirely its powerful computing power and storage capacity, but the software it runs. Without software, a computer is a pile of metal and plastic. On this basis, we can look at the development of manufacturing informatization, and actually understand the three stages of intelligent manufacturing evolution

"four modernizations and one manufacturing" look at industrial informatization

the development of manufacturing informatization is mainly carried out around the business operation of enterprises. The first is enterprise internal informatization, as shown in Figure 1. This includes "four modernizations and one reengineering", that is, R & D informatization, product informatization, production informatization, management informatization, business process and organization reengineering. Among them, product informatization mainly refers to the products with embedded systems, and their complexity is different. Understanding product informatization is very important for understanding the current intelligent manufacturing

at the same time, enterprises also have a problem of upstream supply chain and downstream social relations. The upstream includes raw materials, parts, equipment and personnel recruitment, while the downstream is related to sales, banks and customer relations. These belong to the external informatization of enterprises

the internal and external businesses of an enterprise constitute the most basic connotation of enterprise informatization. Enterprise informatization started from digitalization. When the computer was just invented, it was originally used for scientific computing. It was soon used for business processing to improve the management effect. This is a process from bottom to top, starting with some data processing systems, such as financial management, including some statistical report processing; Then, it gradually rose to the management level, that is, the development of management information system (MIS), from financial management, personnel management to production management, and went up layer by layer; Finally, it rises to the decision-making level and develops decision information system (DSS). Enterprise informatization is in the digital period from the beginning

digital start

however, the use of computers to transform the production equipment of enterprises actually started earlier than the management information system. In 1952, the second year after the invention of the commercial electronic computer, a company in the United States designed a set of numerical control devices and developed the first three-axis numerical control milling machine. Although the milling machine has a large volume and high cost, it has opened up a new era of digital control. In 1958, the United States developed the first machining center. This means that the era of computer changing manufacturing has officially begun. Subsequently, with the invention of the first microprocessor chip, hundreds of millions of embedded systems began to be embedded in various equipment and products. The manufacturing industry began to move towards the era of computer control with digital manufacturing technology as the core. At that time, it was called Mechatronics in China. The term "mechatronics" does not completely point to the essence of the problem, that is, computer control

it can be seen that computer systems have long given intelligence to various manufacturing equipment. According to the previous definition of intelligence, the problem of intelligent manufacturing can be said to have been raised very early. In the whole process of information-based transformation of manufacturing industry, it is industrial software that supports the development of enterprise digitalization and plays a very key role

recently, the TV station held a seminar on China's manufacturing industry, in which "what else can not be made in China's manufacturing industry?" Ten aspects were raised, but industrial software was not mentioned. As everyone knows, China's manufacturing industry ranks first in the world, accounting for 20% of the world's manufacturing industry. However, more than 90% of China's industrial software now depends on imports. The slightly more complicated ones are not made in China. Moreover, the market share of China's industrial software only accounts for 1.7% of the world's industrial software market share. A large manufacturing country of 20% only accounts for 1.7%, which is enough to show that the "physique" of China's industry is too weak. It seems that there is still a big deviation in our understanding of this problem

in fact, as early as the 1970s, we can see the vigorous development of digital transformation of traditional industries. Especially in 1974, after the successful development of the fifth generation CNC device using microprocessor chips and semiconductor memory, it developed very rapidly from the perspective of production equipment. Take CNC machine tools for example. From one axis to three axes to five axes to seven axes, it has had a revolutionary impact on the industrialization based on informatization. There are also various computer-aided systems, from CAD to CAE, to cam, which have had a far-reaching impact on the modernization of manufacturing industry and completely changed people's understanding of modern industrialization

later, with the development of computer technology, full three-dimensional digitization and digital simulation appeared. Industrial digitalization is developing towards high-end. The whole process of the enterprise from receiving the order to the final product delivery completely depends on the control and support of computer software

the rise of networking

in the early 1990s, the Internet began to spread all over the world, and the networking of enterprises also developed rapidly. Before the Internet was popularized, almost all enterprises adopted the client server (c/s) architecture, but the client server can only solve the problem of local domain connection. After the rise of Internet, different places can be connected, and enterprises soon began to move towards networking

in addition to application interconnection, the networking of enterprises has two main directions. One is internal, which connects all the information systems of various departments and subordinate units within the enterprise, whether these departments are in Beijing, India or Mexico. This greatly improves the operational efficiency and effectiveness of the internal business of the enterprise. Of course, it has only realized the exchange of information and data, but has not yet achieved intellectualization

the other is external. The external contacts of enterprises are all conducted through interconnection. That is to say, part of the internal part of the enterprise should be opened to external cooperative units to get through horizontally. For example, those who produce automobiles will open their production plans to the upstream seat factories. The latter can enter the internal network of the enterprise to understand the production progress of relevant departments, so as to supply goods accurately and timely. After the enterprise connects with the bank, as long as the seats are accepted by the automobile manufacturer, the bank will automatically make payments to the upstream suppliers. In this way, the integration of external information systems is achieved

the networking of manufacturing and production brought about by interconnection is based on internal and external implementation. This can be seen as the core connotation of the early "interconnection + manufacturing". It can be said that "interconnection + manufacturing" actually began in the 1990s

the major technological breakthroughs brought about by the networking of manufacturing industry are at least reflected in the following three aspects

the first is the associated design system. In the virtual design and manufacturing environment, the network can support hundreds of users to carry out real-time design at the same time, so that the three-dimensional design results of a system or the overall and subsystem of an equipment are interrelated. One of the fundamental driving forces for IBM's early development of computer-aided design is that digital drawings can be transmitted through the Internet, and the designed parts can be produced in any IBM factory in the world. At that time, the design speed of new products was 16 times faster, and the speed of product change and update was hundreds of times faster. "Internet +" has opened up an unimaginable huge space for the improvement of manufacturing capacity, which is a new competitive advantage for enterprises

the second is the networking collaboration platform. Networking brings not only the exchange of information, but also the collaborative work of engineers. Some large enterprises, such as Boeing, took the lead in establishing their own very powerful networking collaboration platform. In September2000, Boeing, Lockheed? American and British Defense aviation giants represented by Martin, Raytheon, BAE and r r initiated the establishment of the famous exostar to explore the supply chain coordination in the defense aviation industry. At present, six major manufacturers, covering 16000 professional suppliers of different sizes, manage and collaborate the supply chain through exostar. Subsequently, Airbus, Dassault aviation, Safran and Thales, the four giants in the European defense aviation industry, followed the footsteps of American competitors and initiated the establishment of a networked collaborative manufacturing platform for the European defense aviation industry, boostaerospace, which officially provided services to customers in the industry in 2011

the third is the full three-dimensional annotation technology. As long as the three-dimensional drawings of any product are made, the drawings of parts and components can be naturally decomposed and generated using computer software and systems. This enables enterprises to form a single data source management. The digital thread, which the US Department of defense and aerospace have attached great importance to in recent years, is also the development and extension of such a technology

however, whether it is associated design, networking collaboration platform or full three-dimensional annotation, the root behind it is to prevent the local wear of polished fabric from being too fast. In fact, it is not networking, but industrial software that constantly adds micro powder suspension during the polishing process. All these are supported by various industrial software. The reason why we are talking about industrial products that cannot be produced in China today may be that there is no manufacturing equipment supported by corresponding industrial software. Integrated circuits have many core technologies that are difficult to break through. Among them, the design of integrated circuit is an important part. The design drawings of high-end integrated circuits cannot be drawn manually, but are drawn by computer-aided design software. Without the most advanced software, it is impossible to design the most advanced integrated circuit. If foreign countries only sell us the designs of the first two generations and the first three generations

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